In middle 20th century, after world war 2 (1935-1945) humans thought that they will be able to travel in space and can be multi-planetary species as well as to find something like other species which doesn’t belong to the earth (alien) because of technical advantage in space technology and capabilities due to space war between USA (United States of America) and USSR (Union of Soviet Republics) when these countries want to establish themselves as space power after achieving nuclear power status. Although USSR was the first country to launch satellite known as sputhink 1 on October 4, 1957 with a size of a beach ball and 83.6 kgs of weight and soviet cosmonaut “Yuri Gagrin” was the first person in space and orbited the earth in Vostok spacecraft on April 12, 1961 which forced the USA to laugh it’s own spacecraft early and the USA did after a month later, therefore “Alan Shepard Jr” became first American to visit space in Mercury-Redstone 3 spacecraft. However, USA is the only country to successfully landman to the moon on July 20, 1969 in Apollo 11 (July 16, 1969 – July 24, 1969) and “Neil Armstrong” and “Buzz Aldrin” became the first human on another planetary body and it’s the only time when human landed and walked on another space body.
End of cold war, It was visible to predict end of the USSR after fall of the Berlin wall and liberal policies of last USSR president “Mikhail Gorbachev” which tried to approve liberal policies in a communist country. The dissolution of the Soviet Union was internal disintegration because of less economical growth and high expenditure to compete with the USA and it begins in the late 1980s and ended on December 26, 1991 (one day after Christmas). USSR dissolved in 15 independent republics which ended the cold war.
But, after cold war new countries are emerging with few are capable of compite with the USA. For example, People Republic of China (PRC), Russia (successor of USSR), European Union (EU), Japan, Republic of India, and the Republic of Korea due to globalization world is moved from bipolar in cold war era to multi-polar in today’s world.
Nowadays due to successful economical wealth and military power many eastern countries (China, India, Japan and Korea) can compite with western countries and China is catching up with USA and many diplomats believe that new cold war has emerged between China and USA and both are trying to counter each other in ever front.
On the other hand, the world is changed a lot and now world is multipolar, Europe is now recovered and can participate in space race with France and Germany with leading space forces, other Eastern countries like India, Japan and South Korea are trying to improve and enhance their capabilities and few private companies can also help their respective countries to successfully improve their chances to end new space race like Space X which became first private companies to send an astronaut to International Space Station which was built in collaboration.